Magnesium intake and incidence of pancreatic cancer: the VITamins and Lifestyle study

Daniel Dibaba, Pengcheng Xun, Kuninobu Yokota, Emily White,and Ka He

Received 26 June 2015; Revised 28 September 2015; Accepted 8 October 2015
Advance online publication 10 November 2015


Background: Method: Result: Conclusions: Materials and Methods Results Discussion Key messages Conflict of interest References Acknowledgements Figures and Tables


Studies document that magnesium is inversely associated with the risk of diabetes, which is a risk factor of pancreatic cancer. However, studies on the direct association of magnesium with pancreatic cancer are few and findings are inconclusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between magnesium intake and pancreatic cancer incidence in a large prospective cohort study.

A cohort of 66 806 men and women aged 50–76 years at baseline who participated in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) study was followed from 2000 to 2008. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pancreatic cancer incidence by magnesium intake categories.

During an average of 6.8-year follow-up, 151 participants developed pancreatic cancer. Compared with those who met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for magnesium intake, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for pancreatic cancer were 1.42 (0.91, 2.21) for those with magnesium intake in the range of 75–99% RDA and 1.76 (1.04, 2.96) for those with magnesium intake <75% RDA. Every 100 mg per day decrement in magnesium intake was associated with a 24% increase in the incidence of pancreatic cancer (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.50; Ptrend=0.03). The observed inverse associations appeared not to be appreciably modified by age, gender, body mass index, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use but appeared to be limited to those taking magnesium supplementation (from multivitamins or individual supplement).

Findings from this prospective cohort study indicate that magnesium intake may be beneficial in terms of primary prevention of pancreatic cancer.


Magnesium intake; pancreatic cancer; VITAL study; prospective cohort

British Journal of Cancer (BJC)

The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.


Background: To our knowledge, the effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases has not been previously investigated in a meta-analysis, and the findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent.

Objective: We sought to determine the pooled effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in participants with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases.

Design: We identified RCTs that were published in English before May 2017 that examined the effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases through PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane,, SpringerLink, and Google Scholar databases as well as the reference lists from identified relevant articles. Random- and fixed-effects models were used to estimate the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs in changes in BP from baseline to the end of the trial in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between the magnesium-supplementation group and the control group.

Results: Eleven RCTs that included 543 participants with follow-up periods that ranged from 1 to 6 mo (mean: 3.6 mo) were included in this meta-analysis. The dose of elemental magnesium that was used in the trials ranged from 365 to 450 mg/d. All studies reported BP at baseline and the end of the trial. The weighted overall effects indicated that the magnesium-supplementation group had a significantly greater reduction in both SBP (SMD: -0.20; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.03) and DBP (SMD: -0.27; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.03) than did the control group. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a mean reduction of 4.18 mm Hg in SBP and 2.27 mm Hg in DBP.

Conclusion: The pooled results suggest that magnesium supplementation significantly lowers BP in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or other noncommunicable chronic diseases.